Phase 2

Bladder Cancer Clinical Trial

Estimated trial completion date
Apr 30, 2024


This trial is comparing the effects of immunotherapy and radiation therapy, to immunotherapy alone, in treating patients with bladder cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. The addition of radiation may shrink the cancer but could also cause side effects. Immunotherapy may help the body's immune system to attack the cancer, and radiation therapy may kill the tumor cells with fewer doses and over a shorter period than conventional radiation therapy. This combination may be more efficient in killing tumor cells.

Patients are eligible if they are/have:


  • Histologically confirmed metastatic urothelial carcinoma
  • Patients must be either ineligible for platinum treatment or platinum refractory as defined below:
  • Platinum-ineligible: If patients meet any one of the following criteria:
  • Impaired renal function (creatinine clearance [CrCl] of < 30 mL/min)
  • Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of > 2
  • Grade > 2 peripheral neuropathy
  • New York Heart Association (NYHA) Heart Failure of > 3
  • Platinum-refractory: If patients meet any one of the following criteria:
  • Prior platinum-based perioperative chemotherapy within 12 months of relapse
  • Prior platinum-based chemotherapy for metastatic disease
  • Patients must have tissue available for central PD-L1 determination stratification OR agree to undergo a biopsy for additional tissue
  • Patients must have at least one measurable site >= 1 cm in diameter per RECIST 1.1 and a site targetable for radiotherapy. Measurable site must not overlap with radiated site such that measurable site cannot receive > 2 Gy per fraction
  • Patients must have measurable disease, defined as at least one lesion that can be accurately measured in at least one dimension (longest diameter to be recorded for non-nodal lesions and short axis for nodal lesions)


  • Men and women, ages >= 18 years of age
  • ECOG performance status =< 2
  • Leukocytes >= 2,500/mm^3
  • Absolute neutrophil count >= 1,500/mm^3
  • Platelets >= 100,000/mm^3
  • Hemoglobin >= 8 g/dL
  • Creatinine clearance (CrCl) of 30 to 59 mL/min
  • Total bilirubin =< 1.5 x institutional upper limit of normal (ULN) (however, patients with known Gilbert disease who have serum bilirubin level =< 3 x ULN may be enrolled)
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT])/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase [SGPT]) =< 3 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
  • AST and/or ALT =< 5 x ULN for patients with liver involvement
  • Alkaline phosphatase =< 2.5 x ULN
  • =< 5 x ULN for patients with documented liver involvement or bone metastases
  • Institutional normalized ratio (INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) =< 1.5 x ULN
  • This applies only to patients who do not receive therapeutic anticoagulation; patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation, such as low-molecular-weight heparin or warfarin, should be on a stable dose
  • No prior allogeneic bone marrow transplantation or prior solid organ transplantation
  • No prior radiotherapy to targetable site or measurable site
  • No chemotherapy or radiotherapy within 4 weeks prior to entering the study or those who have not recovered from adverse events (other than alopecia) due to agents administered more than 4 weeks earlier. However, the following therapies are allowed:
  • Hormone-replacement therapy or oral contraceptives
  • Palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases > 2 weeks prior to registration
  • No prior treatment with CD137 agonists or immune checkpoint blockade therapies, including anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, and anti-PD-L1 therapeutic antibodies
  • No treatment with systemic immunostimulatory agents (including, but not limited to, interferon and interleukin 2 [IL-2]) within 4 weeks or 5 half-lives of the drug (whichever is longer) prior to initiation of study treatment
  • No prior treatment with any other investigational agent within 4 weeks prior to registration
  • No prior treatment with systemic immunostimulatory agents (including, but not limited to, interferon [IFN]-alpha or interleukin [IL]-2) within 6 weeks prior to registration
  • Any prior systemic therapy is permitted except therapy with PD1/PDL1 inhibitor
  • Patients who have received acute, low dose, systemic immunosuppressant medications (e.g., a one-time dose of dexamethasone for nausea) may be enrolled
  • The use of inhaled corticosteroids and mineralocorticoids (e.g., fludrocortisone) for patients with orthostatic hypotension or adrenocortical insufficiency is allowed
  • No active tuberculosis (TB)
  • No known additional malignancy that is progressing or requires active treatment. Exceptions include basal cell carcinoma of the skin or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin that has undergone potentially curative therapy or in situ cervical cancer
  • Patients with asymptomatic treated CNS metastases may be enrolled, provided all the criteria listed above are met as well as the following:
  • Radiographic demonstration of improvement upon the completion of CNS directed therapy and no evidence of interim progression between the completion of CNS directed therapy and the screening radiographic study
  • No stereotactic radiation or whole-brain radiation within 28 days prior to registration
  • Screening CNS radiographic study >= 4 weeks from completion of radiotherapy and >= 2 weeks from discontinuation of corticosteroids
  • No active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in the past 2 years (i.e. with use of disease modifying agents, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs). Replacement therapy (e.g. thyroxine, insulin, or physiologic corticosteroid replacement therapy for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency, etc.) is not considered a form of systemic treatment
  • Patients with a history of autoimmune hypothyroidism on a stable dose of thyroid replacement hormone are eligible
  • No known history of, or any evidence of active, non-infectious pneumonitis or colitis
  • No known hypersensitivity to Chinese hamster ovary cell products or other recombinant human antibodies
  • No history of severe allergic, anaphylactic, or other hypersensitivity reactions to chimeric or humanized antibodies or fusion proteins
  • No known clinically significant liver disease, including active viral, alcoholic, or other hepatitis; cirrhosis; fatty liver; and inherited liver disease
  • No history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonitis (including drug induced), organizing pneumonia (i.e., bronchiolitis obliterans, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, etc.), or evidence of active pneumonitis on screening chest computed tomography (CT) scan. History of radiation pneumonitis in the radiation field (fibrosis) is permitted
  • No significant cardiovascular disease (such as New York Heart Association class II or greater cardiac disease, myocardial infarction, or cerebrovascular accident) within 3 months prior to initiation of study treatment, unstable arrhythmia, or unstable angina
  • No other disease, metabolic dysfunction, physical examination finding, or clinical laboratory finding that contraindicates the use of an investigational drug, may affect the interpretation of the results, or may render the patient at high risk from treatment complications
  • No history of leptomeningeal disease
  • No uncontrolled tumor-related pain
  • Patients requiring pain medication must be on a stable regimen at study entry
  • Symptomatic lesions (e.g., bone metastases or metastases causing nerve impingement) amenable to palliative radiotherapy should be treated prior to enrollment. Patients should be recovered from the effects of radiation. There is no required minimum recovery period
  • Asymptomatic metastatic lesions that would likely cause functional deficits or intractable pain with further growth (e.g., epidural metastasis that is not currently associated with spinal cord compression) should be considered for loco-regional therapy if appropriate prior to enrollment
  • No uncontrolled pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, or ascites requiring recurrent drainage procedures (once monthly or more frequently). Patients with indwelling catheters (e.g., PleurX) are allowed
  • Patients with controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus on a stable insulin regimen are eligible
  • Patients with eczema, psoriasis, lichen simplex chronicus of vitiligo with dermatologic manifestations only (e.g., patients with psoriatic arthritis would be excluded) are permitted provided that they meet the following conditions:
  • Patients with psoriasis must have a baseline ophthalmologic exam to rule out ocular manifestations
  • Rash must cover less than 10% of body surface area (BSA)
  • Disease is well controlled at baseline and only requiring low potency topical steroids (e.g., hydrocortisone 2.5%, hydrocortisone butyrate 0.1%, flucinolone 0.01%, desonide 0.05%, aclometasone dipropionate 0.05%)
  • No acute exacerbations of underlying condition within the last 12 months (not requiring psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation [PUVA], methotrexate, retinoids, biologic agents, oral calcineurin inhibitors; high potency or oral steroids)
  • No uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements
  • No active infections requiring systemic antibiotics within 2 weeks prior to registration. Patients receiving prophylactic antibiotics (e.g., for prevention of a urinary tract infection or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are eligible
  • No major surgical procedure within 28 days prior to registration or anticipation of need for a major surgical procedure during the course of the study
  • No administration of a live, attenuated vaccine within 30 days before registration or anticipation that such a live, attenuated vaccine will be required during the study and up to 5 months after the last dose of atezolizumab
  • Patients who have received live attenuated vaccines within 30 days of the first dose of trial treatment are eligible at the discretion of the investigator. All seasonal influenza vaccines and vaccines intended to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are allowed

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